Pamukkale Thermal-Health Tourism- SPA DENİZLİ, CITY OF WATER AND HEALTH THROUGHOUT HISTORY [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Lykos valley where Denizli city is situated can be called as one of the places to where Lord has been the most generous. That is why, the first marks of settlement in the region date back to 500.000 years and there have been settlements in the region continuously till today. There are three main reasons for that which are thermal water, geographic situation and convenient climate. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Two rivers give life to these fertile lands. Big Meander and Çürüksu River after which the name of the valley comes. Emerging from the skirts of Honaz (Kadmos) mountain, the Çürüksu River passes through the Çürüksu Valley and joins Big Meander right after Sarayköy district. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Çürüksu valley has various thermal sources on the fault line that starts from Afyon district and reaching to Aydın. That is the reason why there are plenty of rich and best quality travertine mines in the whole region around Çökelez Mountain, Honaz Mountain and Kaklık district. This thermal water has always been used for curing purposes through out history and several glorious baths were built in the region. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]The most important settlement place in the region before Hellenistic period is Kollossai city, the name of which is mentioned both by Herodot and Xenephon. Settlements in the region during Hellenistic period can be lined up as the Laodikeia which is in the middle of the valley, Attouda (Sarayköy-Hisarköy), Trapezopolis (Babadağ-Bekirler köyü), Karura (Sarayköy-Tekkeköy), Tripolis (Yenicekent) which is in the west of the Big Meander and Hierapolis (Pamukkale) in the north of Laodikeia. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Long before Polemon dynasty, skeptic philosophers Antiokhos and Theiodos had been educated in Laodikeia which was a center of education. Education for medicine was always important in the city so in Strabon era, one Herophileian (the most famous doctor of ancient era) school for medicine was established in the city by a large group of scientists (Strabon XII, 8.20). Naturally treatment based on thermal water besides other treatment methods were studied in that school.[/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]In ancient era, in the ancient cities established around Denizli such as Hierapolis, Laodikeia, Attouda, Karura, Herakleia Salbace ve Eumeneia medicine was accepted as science. [/FONT] In the ancient sources, Strabon (XII/8.20) mentions his being in the Lycos Valley and presence of a Men Karou Temple which was respected by the citizens of Laodikeia, Attouda and Karura and presence of a medicine Scholl very close to that temple. According to Strabon (XII/8.20), the name of the school was Herophileion; it was founded by Zeuksis and was mastered by Aleksandros Philalethes. Strabon (XII/8.20) also mentions this school was to be as important as the Erasistrateion school that was founded by Hikesios. These information let us to the truth that Lycos Valley used to have a very important medicine school and it was in the ancient Laodikia city and the scientist educated in that school were in duty in the other cities of the valley. Even though ancient city of Herakleia Salbace was established in the name of God Herakles, the chief God of the city was Asklepios and his wife Hygeia. Besides, in ancient city Herakleia Salbace Asklepios and his wife Hygeia figures were carved out mostly. This shows us how advanced the city was in medicine and the scientists educated here were famous worldwide. Excavations in the region will probably brighten more specific details. [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]In the ancient era there was surely one more medicine center in ancient city Eumeneia which is in Çivril district now. There was a medicine school established around Attanassos Hieron which was very close to the city. In the ancient time, medicine was accepted as science by Eumeneia citizens. In Attanassos Hieron the patients were cured by infusion and therapy meanwhile in the medicine school the patients were treated by diagnosing. Also, in the ancient sources it is mentioned that the doctors educated here were to serve important duties. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]The reasons why the ancient city of Hierapolis was called as Holy City were the temples built in the city and its thermal water.[/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]The city had become a very important health center thanks to its thermal water in Roman era and the patients who came there from all over Anatolia had lived there for the rest of their lives. Roman Nekropol of the city is consisted of the graves of the patients died here and because of the culture varieties of the patients died here, it is rich in culture. The Nimfeum (monumental tab) and the Roman Baths built in the city were built due to this characteristic of the city and have even remained today. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]One of the reasons why the ancient city of Tripolis, which is situated along the coast of Big Meander, was established was its thermal water known as Yenicekent Thermal today. Also there was the ancient city of Karura, which was established very close to the thermal water source known as Sarayköy-Tekke thermal spring. The thermal facilities of the ancient city were mentioned to be used in medicine in ancient sources. Throughout centuries, medicine as science and therapy based on thermal water had been performed in our region. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Nowadays, health tourism based on thermal springs is very important in world tourism. Turkey is in the seventh place in whole world, first place in Europe for its richness of thermal water sources and it is in third place in thermal health applications. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Our city is situated in one of the richest thermal water sources of the world. Denizli has great tourism potential that can be integrated to any kind of tourism and can itself be tourism destination. In the efforts of making Denizli a trade mark in thermal tourism, Çardak Beylerli, Buldan Yenicekent-Bölmekaya, Tekkeköy, İnsuyu, Babacık and Kızıldere Region, Gölemezli regions were declared to be thermal tourism centers by Ministry of Culture and Tourism on December 16th 2006 by the declaration number 2006/11354.[/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Tourism vision of Denizli city is based on thermal tourism. The geo- thermal fault line that lays through Pamukkale- Karahayıt- Akköy- Yenicekent- Sarayköy is one of the outstanding thermal source of Turkey. The temperature of the water in that region varies between 36 0C and 125.0C. With the thermal facilities present and the cure centers and thermal hotels which are planned to be built along the geo-thermal fault line, tourism and thermal cure services are offered to the visitors of the region in international quality thoroughout year and there are continious efforts to improve the quality of the service avaible in the thermal facilities. .[/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Thermal sources in our city are used for the treatment of heart diseases, arteriosclerosis, blood pressure disease, rheumatism, dermatological disease, eye disease, rachitism, apoplexy, neurological disease, scabies, pruritus diseases when applied, and also are used for the treatment of gastroenterological diseases, coronary diseases, and reyno diseases when drunk. Taking a mud bath together with thermal treatment in the thermal sources can be helpful for refreshing skin and juvenescence. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Beside these health facilities, the visitors who come to our city can take pleasure in visiting ancient cities such as Tripolis, Hierapolis, Laodikeia, Kolossai and natural beauties such as Kaklık Cave, Dodurgalar-Keloğlan Cave, Süleymanlı Valley and lake, Ağlayan Kale waterfall, Saklı Lake. [/FONT] [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]In our region water means life and health. We have this privilege for centuries. As we all know, “ Health for everyone” and we,as whole citizens of Denizli, wellcome you all with all the facilities for healh. [/FONT] Healing Water of Pamukkale The fascinating Pamukkale travertine cascades are located at the edge of the ancient city of Hierapolis, 18 km from Denizli City.The natural hot spring is beneficial for heart and nerve complaints, hardening of the arteries, high blood pressure, rheumatism, skin diseases, eye diseases, bladder problems, nephritis and paralysis. If the water is drunk while warm, it is good for gastric spasms as well. Buldan Spring Water The mineral water source has two taps which are 2 km from Buldan. The hot and cold water sources give 25 liters of spring water per minute. The spring is about 190C. The water contains calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3). The water is clear and drinkable. The water is good for the digestive system and hepatitis. The altitude of the spring is about 600 m. Locations of various springs in Buldan are as follows: Doğa Mineral Water - Çaybaşı Mah. / Buldan Efe Mineral Water - İçme Deresi / Buldan Gerenci Healthy Spring - Narlı Village / Buldan Kuşkörü Healthy Spring - Hisarköyü / Buldan Thermal Springs and Spring Waters Karahayıt Thermal Spring and Mineral Waters The Thermal Source is in Karahayıt Town about 5 km north of Pamukkale and also a part of the Pamukkale Thermal Sources System. The water composition resembles that of Pamukkale Thermal Sources, but it is warmer and has less CO2. There are three sources. The first one is 420C, the second is 50 0C and the third source is 56 0C. The water also has mildly radioactive elements. The thermal water is good for the heart, hardening of the arteries, high blood pressure, rheumatism, sciatica, skin and nerve diseases. Thermal Water Contents: The water has calcium (466.000), bicarbonate (1329,569), sodium (114,950), iron (2,485), potassium (32,883), magnesium (131,344), carbon dioxide (730,40) mg and radioactivity is 183,14.There are several oxides in thermal water. That's why the water has formed different colored travertines according to its contents. Karahayıt used to be just a local tourist destination, but nowadays it is an international destination because many hotels have been built. Karahayıt Town is almost as important as Pamukkale.The Karahayıt Red Cascades cover about 500 m2. The cascades are one of the most interesting places to see in Denizli. Pamukkale Thermal Spring and Mineral Waters The sources of thermal water for Pamukkale are about 20 km from Denizli. The ancient city of Hierapolis is also located in the same place. The water comes from underground karstic caverns and creates the cascades through precipitation of CaCO3 (calcium bicarbonate ) as the CO2 (carbon dioxide) evaporates. Thermal spring water is beneficial for myocardium and cardiac complaints.The curative value of this thermal spring was understood in ancient times as well. It has been used for centuries. During the Roman Era religious ceremonies and festivals were held at the thermal pools, and important statesmen and rich people came to Hierapolis to be cured. Religious functionaries and ancient physicians administered healing. The spring waters are rich in calcium, magnesium sulfate, bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. They also have a radioactive content of 1,537 picocuries/liter. The pH is 6.0. Travertine is a kind of rock which is formed as calcium bicarbonate precipitates out of hot spring water. It may be formed in many ways under different atmospheric conditions. Geological activity of the past affected a large area in which the Pamukkale thermal springs are found. There are 17 thermal sources in this special area with temperatures ranging between 35-100°C. The source of Pamukkale is only one unit of that whole area. The thermal water flows to the top of the cascades by a 320-meter-long channel and then flows on the cascades about 240-300 m. CaCO3 begins to precipitate on the cascades as the carbon dioxide evaporates, but in the beginning the precipitate is soft like gel. It needs time to completely dry and harden. In order to protect the cascades from destruction and to preserve their natural beauty, entrance to the travertine area has been prohibited since 15 May 1997. Weather conditions, the temperature of the water, and sufficient time for water to spread and flow are very important for the maintenance of white travertines. Precipitation goes on until the levels of carbon dioxide in the thermal water and the surrounding air are balanced. While the quantity of CO2 is 725 mg/l in the source, it is only 125 mg/l at the end of the travertines. Calcium bicarbonate also decreases from 1200 mg/l to 400 mg/l, and calcium decreases from 576 to 8 mg/l. Analysis indicates that 499.9 mg of CaCO3 precipitates per liter of thermal water over the cascades. The average density of the thermal water is 1.48 g/cm3 with a flow rate of 466.2 liters/second. That means 43,191 grams of calcium bicarbonate precipitate from the thermal water per day. Theoretically, that can whiten a 13,584 m2 area. However, whitening a 13,584 m2 area is practically very difficult. The whole travertine area currently covers 22,000 m2.There is an area called ''Domuz Çukuru'' which is about 3000 m2 on an old street which used to be connected to Pamukkale Town. It is free for tourists. Ions: Potassium (K) 13.5 mg, Sodium (Na) 332.3 mg, Calcium (Ca) 464.5 mg, Magnesium (Mg) 911 mg, Iron (Fe) 0.036 mg, Aluminum (Al) 2.34 mg. Anions: Chlorinate (CL) 53, Nitrate (NO3), Sulfate (SO4) 675.5, Hydro phosphate (HPO4) 1.08, Hydro Carbonate (HCO3) 1045.3. Çizmeli (Yenice) Thermal Spring and Mineral Water It is within Yenicekent Town's Border, 16 km from Buldan District. It is on the shore of the Menderes River and may be reached by the road which passes through the ancient city of Tripolis. The area may also be reached directly from Denizli with an asphalt road. There are recreational facilities. The temperature of the water is 44°C and contains hydrocarbonate, sulfate, sodium, calcium ions and some radioactive elements. The thermal water is beneficial in treating rheumatism, heart ailments, hardening of the arteries, and skin and hemorrhoidal swelling. The Karşıyaka-Kamera Thermal Springs are in the same system and the characteristics of their water is the same. Gölemezli Mud Baths It is close to Gölemezli Village of Akköy District. There are four different sources which are on the same system as the Pamukkale Sources. One of them is used for mud baths. The water temperatures are from 35-50°C. The thermal waters contain CO2, sulfate, sodium and calcium. The water is useful for skin diseases. Babacık (Kabaağaç) ThermalSpring It is in the Kabaağac Village, which is 3 km from the Tekke ThermalSprings of Sarayköy District. There are two sulfurous sources. One of them is43°C and the other is 62°C. The sources are rich in carbon dioxide. TekkeköyThermalSpring It is close to Tekke Village about 20 km from Sarayköy District.Its temperature is 80°C. A Roman Bath, a pool and changing rooms from the RomanPeriod are here. The water is good for rheumatism, skin diseases, femalediseases and urethra diseases. Kavakbaşı ThermalSpring It's in Kavakbaşı Village of Akköy District, which is about 4 km from Pamukkale. The temperature is 30°C and is used for skin diseases. Kızıldere Thermal Springs The source for these red colored rocks is about 11 km from Sarayköy District. The water contains sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfate. There are three sources with temperatures of 63°C, 65°C and 88°C. There is a double Turkish bath with two baths, pools and changing cabins. The water used for rheumatism and tiredness.