Janiculum, Rome Also known as Gianicolo in Italian, Janiculum Hill is often considered the “Eighth Hill of Rome”, referring to the seven hills around which Ancient Rome was built. The History of the Hill Janiculum, the second highest hill in the contemporary city of Rome and separate from the famed Seven Hills of Rome, was believed to be the center for the cult of the god Janus. Because of its stunning location overlooking the city, it is said that the cult’s priests would stand atop the hill and look for auspices, or signs from the gods. The Aurelian Wall made its may up the Janiculum Hill in order to include inside the walls of the city the water mills that were used to grind corn and make bread. The ancient water mills were used until around the end of ninth century AD. Centuries later, in the 1800s, Janiculum Hill was the site of a memorable battle. In 1849, Giuseppe Garibaldi fought against French troops attacking Rome. Even though the French well outnumbered Garibaldi's troops, they were able to resist the French for several weeks. This event prompted the building of several monuments on the hill that pay homage to Garibaldi and his comrades. Attractions Locals often come here for a walk as the park provides a welcome retrieve from the hectic streets in Rome. There are also some activities popular with children, one of them an authentic puppet theater. Many tourists head to the top of Janiculum Hill just for the view that it provides. However, there are other things to see atop this mound. Garibaldi Monuments The largest monument on the Janiculum is the Garibaldi Monument, an enormous equestrian statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi, honoring the Italian patriot's heroics on this hill in 1849. The statue, located at the center of a small piazza, was built in 1895 after a design by Emilio Gallori. Four sculptures on the large pedestal depict both battle and allegorical scenes. Giuseppe Garibaldi wife Anita, who fought alongside him is also honored with an equestrian statue. Created in 1932 by Mario Rutelli it depicts Anita Garibaldi with a pistol in her right hand holding a baby in her other hand. The two Garibaldi statues are a mere 200 meters apart, connected via the Viale aldo Fabrizi. Independence War Memorial And there's another monument on the Janiculum honoring Italian Patriots: a formal arched memorial with the inscription 'Roma o Morte' (Rome or death) honors the patriots who died in the Italian Independence wars between 1848 and 1870. Manfredi Lighthouse A totally different sight on the hilltop is the Manfredi lighthouse. Built in 1911, it was a gift from Italian immigrants in Argentina to Rome. San Pietro in Montorio and Tempietto Visitors can also explore the Church of San Pietro in Montorio at the bottom of the hill. The church is believed to be built at the site of the crucifixion of St. Peter. A small shrine by Donato Bramante marks the spot where Peter supposedly died. Not far from the church is another building that claims to be on the exact site of Petrus's crucifixion: the Tempietto (small temple). Built by Bramante in 1502 the round temple is architecturally significant since it is considered the first renaissance building in Rome.turkeyarena.com Fontana dell'Acqua Paola The Fontana dell'Acqua Paolo, a monumental baroque fountain built in the early 17th century by pope Paul V, can also be found on Janiculum Hill, at the bottom of the park. The fountain was built here to celebrate the reopening of an old roman aqueduct, originally created in 109 AD by emperor Trajan. The fountain was named after the pope (Paolo is Italian for Paul).