History of Austria History of Austria begins as early as in the pre-historic times when the land was under the annexation of different Celtic tribes prior to the emergence of the powerful Romans. This was basically a period of migration in Austria when other tribes like the Slavs entered the Mainland areas through the various passes in the Alps. Together, they covered considerable areas in the central and eastern parts of the country. Gradually, they mixed with the Rhaeto-Romanic people and relocated their settlements on the highland regions. Babenberg Dynasty : According to the History of Austria , with the fall of the Magyars in 955 B.C. in the Battle of Lechfeld, Emperor Otto the Great established new Marches in Austria. One of them, the ‘Marchia Orientalis' became the nerve center of the mainland, later given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976 B.C., when the Duke of Bavaria – Henry II broke into revolt. The Habsburg Monarchs : The History of Austria witnessed the rule of the Habsburg monarchs in 13 th century, after the downfall of the Babenbergs. Though initially under the rule of a series of kings like the Czech Otakar II and Rudolf I, who defeated and killed Otakar to rule Austria through generations. This was more or less the beginning of the Habsburg Dynasty, continuing for the next 650 years. Among the prominent rulers of this period, mention may be made of short rule of Rudolf IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III and Duke Albert V. Reformation and the Austrian Powers : The air of Reformation affected Austria in 1526, following the Battle of Mohacs which killed Louis II, the Hungarian monarch. Though Catholicism was the main religion in Austria at that point of time, there were fairly large conversions into Lutheranism, that included Emperor Ferdinand I and his successors, Maximilian II, Rudolf II, and Mathias. Ferdinand I ruled considerable parts of the country, including Carniola, Styria and Carinthia and was successful in suppressing all internal revolts arising in his territories during his reign. Reign of Emperor Charles the Sixth and Maria Theresa : The reign of Emperor Charles the Sixth was full of political unrests and confusions, leading to small wars. The later part of his rule lost Belgrade in the hands of the Turks through an unsuccessful battle. His successor, Maria Theresa proved far better in handling grave political issues and it was due to her initiative that the famous Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle terminated the long War of Austrian Succession. Joseph II and Leopold II : The History of Austria saw Joseph II succeeding as heir to the Austrian throne after the death of his mother Maria Theresa in 1780. Well-known as an enlightened despotic ruler, Joseph was basically a reformer, who tried to exert his control over the Roman Catholic Churches but faced severe popular oppositions. As the successor of this ambitious ruler, his brother Leopold II was a far better ruler who worked a lot in ensuring peace and political stability in Austria, which was so long, almost an unknown phenomenon. The French Revolution and the Rise of Napoleon : Suffering severe defeat in the hands of the French army in 1797, Austria came under the rule of the powerful Napoleon Bonaparte who took the title of the Emperor of Austria on his accession to the throne of France. He extensively utilized the Austrian armed forces for annexing places like Bavaria and Russia. Napoleon's rule in Austria is recognized to be a period of complete political unrests and upheavals.turkeyarena.com It was only at the beginning of the nineteenth century that monarchical rule in Austria declined gradually, leading to the emergence of modern political concepts of nationalism and liberalism in the Austrian air. Under the initiative of Metternich, these new ideas required the Revolutions of 1848 to establish themselves fully. The country was industrialized to considerable extents. The post First World War scenario saw Austria becoming a Republic with the new name of German Austria. This new form of government was welcomed and highly appreciated by its inhabitants, with a new constitution framing guidelines for proper functioning of the Austrian Republican government.