Bodrum Kalesi İngilizce Tanıtımı Bodrum Castle In one of the most important books recording the Ottoman Navy, "Kitab-i Bahriye", the Ottoman Admiral, Piri Reis, identifies the Castle with the town of Bodrum during his visit in 1521: "... The town of Bodrum is a small castle, in front of which is a nice big harbour. A godly place where people (infidels) have piled up huge stones to protect it from the northern winds... leaving an opening as an entrance for the ships to shelter." First built at the beginning of the 15th century by the Knights of St. John whose earlier stronghold in Izmir was destroyed by Timurlane, warrior monks of Catholic origin named their new location St. Petrus and the area Petronium. Situated on the cliffs called Zephyria in ancient times, the Castle comprises of a three-fold enclosure with the English, French, Italian, and Spanish (Snake) Towers, while the German Tower was home to a Gothic chapel. Built using the rare stones of the Mausoleum which had been taken by the knights, one can see the original reliefs on the tower walls. Later in 1525, Suleyman the Magnificient turned the chapel into a mosque. The outer walls of this medieval castle were built by the German architect Heinrich Schlegelholt between 1415-1437. The Italian Tower, which was built by Angelo Mascettola, and the English Tower were added in 1480. The last classical restoration took place between 1476-1508. There are a total of 265 Coats of Arms, with lion and dragon figures on which the colours have mostly faded, but they retain their mystery. The middle emblem on the interior of the main entrance door belongs to Jacques Gatineau, the Commander at that time; under this emblem the eagle figure with a crown is thought to belong to another commander between 1517-18, Cornelius Harmsbrook. Monsignor Wallahim Berges used the same symbol; another coat of arms is thought to belong to a knight named Jacques Aylmer de la Chevalerie. The third gate is the best preserved among the seven gates to the Castle. The Coat of Arms on the fourth gate opens to the vaulted stairs, and celebrates another Commander (1510-12) Antoni de San Marti. If you follow the western moat lined with trees instead of ascending the stairs, you will see the altars and sarcophagae. At the sixth gate you will read the script in Latin saying, "Protect us our Lord while we sleep, save us while we are awake. Without your protection no one can save us." As you proceed to the inner castle through the undecorated vault, you will find yourself in a cistern. Some of the fourteen cisterns which provided water during sieges are still in use. Around 1895, Abdulhamit II had the Turkish Baths constructed. The castle became a prison for both captives and exiles during the Ottoman period. The fourth tower known as the Snake Tower was re-opened, housing an exhibition hall displaying the cult of the snake, a particular phenomenon of antiquity, which represented the symbol of life and death and is also the symbol of the God of Health, Aeschlepios. To the east of the Snake Tower, you can visit the German Tower to see a section from the daily life of the knights- the embrasures in the parapet between the two towers were restored together with the repairing of the front walls (1480-1522). To the east of the German Tower, fourteen skeletons with heavy iron chains shackled to their ankles found in the medieval rubbish heap of the Knights of St. John are displayed quite realistically. There are more of the horror scenes a little bit further on, where there are two unnamed towers with the chimneys and embrasures blocked. Descend 23 steps in the tower and you will see the torture room (actively used between 1513-22) with an inscription on the door saying "Inde deus Abest" (A place where God does not exist). The French Tower, which stands about 50 meters above sea evel, dominates the whole town with its rich history.turkeyarena.com On May 26, 1915 the castle was bombed by the French battleship "Dublex" to be restored once again in 7 963. You will now need a break to enjoy refreshments within the Castle and perhaps choose souvenirs while enjoying the shade of century old bay and myrtle trees and a variety of animals from ostriches to peacocks wandering amongst the oleanders. Pigeons gather around you for food. Afterwards, it is time to start a new journey through the Museum of Underwater Archaeology.