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Fethiye icinde Fethiye İngilizce Tanıtımı konusu , Fethiye İngilizce Tanıtımı History of Fethiye In the antique ages, the name of Fethiye which was a coast city on the border of Lycia – Caria was Telmessos. Since its ...
|13-01-2009, 01:38 PM||#1 (permalink)|
Üyelik tarihi: Jun 2007
Fethiye İngilizce Tanıtımı
Fethiye İngilizce Tanıtımı
History of Fethiye
In the antique ages, the name of Fethiye which was a coast city on the border of Lycia – Caria was Telmessos. Since its construction in Mediterranian Coast band, being the only city on which the localization goes on continiously, Telmessos antique city is stated to be constructed in B.C. 3000 by the philological determination -by its name with –ss postfix - ; but the concrete information that would prove this statement could not be reached yet.
“Lycian God Apollon falls in love with the daughter of Antenor who accepts Odyseus and Menelaos to his home as guests in the period of War of Troya started. He seems like a small and pretty dog to come closer to the girl who is diffident. When the girl gets used to him, he shows his identiy and they make love. After some time, they have a son, they name him as Telmessos. A city was established for the name of this child on the border of Lycia and Apollon assigns his son to this city as seer.”
In the city coins belonging to the B.C. 5. Century, the name of the city was read as Telebehi in the writings in the language of Lycia, in the mythological tale of antique writer Suidas, it is probable to conclude that it has a history going back to the War of Troya. This specification of Telmessos that was told by Heredot as a prophecy center had a great glory in Front Asia and further places. The Great Alexander survived from the betrayal of one of his men by the interpretation of one of his dreams during the enclosure of Halikarnassos by interpreter Aristander of Telmessos and did not keep this interpreter away during the expeditions.
Strabon states the place of the city of Telmessos by saying “I mean the mountain after the Daidala, it is near to the town of Telmessos of Lycia and its harbour Telmessis.” Nearly all of the researchers show the place of the antique city as being the center of modern Fethiye of today. This is proved by the placement of the word Telmessos that is the name of the antique city in many tablets which are found in the borders of residential area of the city of Fethiye.
|29-07-2011, 03:24 PM||#2 (permalink)|
Üyelik tarihi: Jun 2007
Telmessos stated as an independent city from Lycia for a long time; but it didnot behave differently from other cities of Lycia politically. Telmessos also carried the legendary spirit of freedom of Lycia and it did also confronted to the king of Lidya when he conquered the Anatolia like the other cities of Lycia in B.C. 6. century. In addition, it confronts to Greek Colonization like other cities of Lycia and didnot leave its own traditions.
After the occupancy of Lycia by Persians in B.C. 545, they entered Kaunos, Telmessos so to Lycia over Caria by the leadership of their Commander Harpagos. During Persian occupation that continues between the years of B.C. 545 and B.C. 333 by cutoffs, Telmessos, in company with (turkeyarena.com) Lycia were tied to 1. Satrap. In this period, the fate of the city is not different from the entire of Lycia. In B.C. 466, before the War of Euremedon, in the list of ones who pays taxes on some years between the dates of B.C. 446–424 and separates from Persians for joining Attic-Delos Sea Union, Telmessos was stated to be as well as Lycia and others in its company joined Persian domination again in B.C. 390. In this period, the city which were directed for the name of Persians by a Lycian dynasty who is called Artumpara fell under Lycia Union after Lycian prince Perikles who directed between 380-362, trounced Artumpara. But in this period, it cannot be said that the union was formed completely. In B.C. 362, Lycia which was united by satraps against the Persians were divided to two as east and west by the counterinsurgence by the Mausollos of Halikarnassos’ passing to the side of Persian and the west part fell under to Caria with Telmessos. This situation lasted until the time of Great Alexander. After Alexander conquered Halikarnassos, Telmessos also opened the doors of the city to him without any endurance as well as Lycia. On the orher hand, he did it by a catch according to a saying.
“The navy of Alexander who go for conquering the Anatolia enters the harbour of Telmessos. Their commander Nearchus wants permission for the enterance of prisoners of war and musicians to the city from the city governor of that time who was Antipatridates and his request was accepted. The prisoners of war who carry the musical instruments were in fact the soldiers who hide their weapons inside the instruments and they enter the city. During the symposium that was held in the night, they conquer the acropol by a surprise attack.”
In A.D. 43, Telmessos fell under Romans completely by this date by the announcement of Lycia’s being a state of Roman Empire by the declaration of the Senate of Roma by the suggestion of İmparator Cladius. In A.D. 451, Telmessos joined Kalkhedon Council especially lost its importance in 7. Century by getting weaker and weaker by the Arabian invasions. In A.D. 8. century, even II. Anastasius changed the name of the city as Anastasiupolis, this name was not accepted widely. According to some researchers in the following century, the city took the name of Makri, having the meaning of far places, according to some other researchers this name was derived from the name of a piskopos who was called Makrianes.
In 1071 the War of Malazgirt opened the way of Anatolian savanna to Selçuklu Turks and clans of Turks have been started to be seen in Makri since the end of 11. century. At the beginning, this was not a continuous occupation. Turkish colonies and dervishes who at first improve by new philosophy of Islam and refreshes the Anatolia from dark Bynzantinian culture of Middle Ages, and later Selcuk Turkish Clones and Turkish men who wants to hew a fatherland for themselves by opening the Anatolia to the Aegean Sea, struggled and succeeded in attachment to the soil in the high valleys and rich savannas of Makri. In 1204, there arised a kind of border between the Byzantians and Turks. This border ranges until Makri and the city involved in the soils of Byzantine. In this period, Turkish boys which lived in mountains and the valleys that are away from the centers were commingled with the local people, embraced the economic traditions of them and united the living styles of themselves with the local people’s living styles.
The Mongolian invasion that was on the second period of 13. century resulted in division of Great Selcuk Government to principalities as well as powering the principalities of the area by the helps of the new Turkish clans coming to the west and let them conquer the areas that are around the area and have populations that are not Turks. In this period, Meğri ( The name of Makri was used during time because it is more susceptible to Turkish) was conquered by Menteşe Bey and fell under the Principality of Menteşe. Menteşe Bey built a madrasah in Meğri and died here in 1282. He left a great emirate to his sons after his death. Byzantine which doubted from this new Turkish power, sent General Alexi to the area for conquest. The General who conquered the Meğri and its environs back, later rose in insurrection against Byzantine and unites with Turks; but Alexi was killed. Menteşeoğulları protected the area against the chaveliers of Rodos and hindered its being taken back many times.
By this time, the Principality of Ottoman that lived in İznik and its environs widened its lands by its forming a government structure that has organization in a short time and Yıldırım Beyazıt made the Principality of Menteşe fall under the Government of Ottoman in 1390. But Ahmet Gazi who is the ruler of Principality of Menteşe defended Beçin and Meğri areas against the Ottomans. After the death of Ahmet Gazi who built a madrasah that was collapsed by Venice later, Menteşeoğulları was left without their lands and they supported Timur against the Ottomans and they took all of lands of the Principality of Menteşe back in 1402 in return to their support.
But later they supported İsa Bey in the power struggle for throne between the sons of Yıldırım Beyazıd and that was resulted in Mehmet Çelebi’s casting down the area. In the period of II. Murat who rises to ascendance after Mehmet Çelebi, the Principality of Menteşe was lost in 1426 as well as (turkeyarena.com) Principality of Teke in 1424. As a result of this, the dominance of the Papacy, people of Venice and the Chaveliers of Rodos was increased in the area. In 1473, the people of Venice conquered Meğri; they established a castle and lived in it and then they moved to the island that is dominant to the harbour and would be called The Island of Chavelier. The area had succeeded in getting the peace after Kanuni conquered the island of Rodos.
The district is rich. Greeks that comes to the district established the city of Levissi (today it is called Village of Kaya (Rock)) in this area which is away from marshes that emits the microbes of malaria. Meğri becomes the wharf of this city. The famous excursionist Charles Texier wrote that the population of Meğri was about a thousand in 1850. In the last period of 19. century, the name of Menteşe was cancelled and the area fell under the State (Pasha) of Muğla. Meğri that was made a district in 1864, the first municipality organization was established in 1874 and Hacı Mehmet Agha of Rodos was chosen as the first president. To 1900s, Meğri was populated with Turks who came from Crete and Thrace and the name of this area was changed to Fethiye as being dedicated to the name of first Turkish air martyr Fethi Bey by a decision of the Council of Municipality in 1914.
During the sharing of the Ottoman lands after the I. World War, while Venizelos wanted the area to be given to Greece because of the great number of Roms, Italians occupated Fethiye on 11 May 1919 short after they occupated Antalya and its environs. Italians who tried to have good relationships with community of the district after a short time after their occupation, left Fethiye on 21 June 1920. In this district that did not see dense events during the War of Independence, the most tragical event was that the emigration of all Rom population in Fethiye and Levissi to Greece after the barter in 1923.
Fethiye, to which Mustafa Kemal Atatürk visited with the Ship of Ege (Aegean) on 22 February 1935, was improved rapidly after the establishment of Turkish Republic and became the most important center of the area. The earthquake that happened on 24 April 1957 resulted in the collapsion of 90% of the houses in the area while only 19 people were dead by the sensitive attitudes of Nezih Okuş who was lieutenant colonel of the day and other managers. Around the antique theater and Paspatur of today, old Fethiye houses could be distinguished with their different architectures on the south of Street of Çarşı and greeting us being ruins of the melancholic past of the city.
The district of Fethiye was mentioned as Beşkaza also even it is not known clearly on which date it became commonplace. The name of Beşkaza comes from an area that were directed by five Muslim judges. Probably in the time of Principality of Menteşe, the works of government were implemented by the assistants of Muslim judges (kadi) that were structured in five centers that were bound to the central directorate of Muslim judges and Fethiye was accepted as Beşkaza by the community of the district.
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